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  • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section B】
試題內容

A. Ever since Sigmund Freud published his controversial theories about the meaningof dreams in 1900, we have been fascinated with the experiences we seem to livethrough while we sleep. Freud was convinced that dreams represent some unfulfilleddesires or hoped-for wishes, while later investigators saw a more pragmatic qualityto them, as reflection of waking life. None of these theories, however, have had thebenefit of much in the way of solid, objective data.
B. At least, until now. Two new developments in research--brain imaging and bigdata--may offer some stronger answers. More detailed and timely photos of the brainat work, combined with the information researchers collected about dreams fromexperiments in sleep labs, are gradually peeling away the mystery of dreams, andrevealing their meaning.
C. From a strictly biological standpoint, scientists have learned much about thephysiological process of dreaming, which occurs primarily in REM (Rapid EyeMovement) sleep. "During dreaming," says Patrick McNamara, a neurologist ( 神經病學家 ) at Boston University School of Medicine and the graduate schoolof Northcentral University in Prescott Valley, Ariz., "the emotional part gets highlyactivated while the executive part of the brain is under-activated. So the kind ofcognitions we experience during dreams are highly emotional, visually vivid, butoften illogical, disconnected and sometimes bizarre." That suggests that our dreamsmay have some role in emotional stability.
D. That does not necessarily mean, most dream researchers believe, that dreams arerandom expressions of emotion or lack of intellectual meaning. While some scientistsmaintain that dream patterns are strictly the result of how different neurons ( 神經元 )in the brain are firing, Deirdre Barrett, a psychologist and dream researcher at HarvardMedical School, believes they represent something more. "I think dreams are thinkingin a different biochemical state."
E. Defining that state, not to mention understanding the rules under which that universeoperates, however, is a challenge. It may represent a complex interaction betweenemotional and cognitive information, says McNamara, so that dreams serve tohelp our brains process emotional memories and integrate them into our long-termmemories. And because traumatic ( 創傷的) events are associated with higher levelsof the stress hormone cortisol (皮質醇 ) , they can cause nightmares. Researchersbelieve that excessive amounts of cortisol can impair the two main brain systems thatintegrate memory. "The memories don't get integrated," he says, "but just sit around.In post traumatic stress disorder, they get re-experienced over and over."
F. In fact, from sleep studies in which people were exposed to images, leaming tasks orother experiences immediately before they dozed off and then examined when theyawakened, many scientists believe that dreams can help us rehearse for challengesor threats we anticipate--emotionally, cognitively and even physiologically. Inour dreams we may try out different scenarios to deal with what's coming up.Although much of the evidence lack of scientific support, McNamara says, someonepracticing piano or playing video games in waking life may start to do the same whiledreaming. People solving a puzzle or studying a foreign language, he adds, can havebreakthroughs with dreams that go beyond the perceptions that simply taking a breakfrom the problem can produce.
G. And now, Barrett says, brain imaging holds the promise of being able to helpscientists "see" what until now could only be reported by subjective, possiblyinaccurately recalled, dream accounts. For example, in research with rats trained torun through mazes to get rewards, investigators were able to record neuron activityin sleeping rats and determined that the rats were running the same mazes in theirdreams.
H. In other experiments with humans, scientists monitored volunteers who slept insidean FMRI ( 功能性磁共振成像 ) scanner while hooked up to EEG ( 腦電圖描記器 )electrodes that measured brain wave activity. When the EEG indicated they weredreaming, the participants were awakened and asked what images they had seenin their dreams. The investigators were later able to match certain patterns of brainactivity to certain images for each person. "There's a crude correspondence betweenthe brain scan and the image. From the scan, you can guess it's an animal with fourlegs," says Barrett. Despite the primitive state of this dream decoding (解碼 ) , theability to actually get content from a dream is getting closer.
I. Mining big data bases of reported dreams holds another kind of promise. Untilnow, researchers have been working on relatively small samples of dream accounts,usually fewer than 200 per study. But new dream websites and smartphone apps likeDreamBoard and Dreamscloud are encouraging thousands of people to report theirdreams so researchers can finally answer their most urgent questions. McNamara, for example, is excited to study dreams from different countries to see whether there are cultural differences in what people's brains do when they aren't awake.
J. The data bases also provide an opportunity to investigate the intriguing but under- studied realm of sex dreams. Until recently, says McNamara, they represented only 10% of reported dreams, likely because people are not eager to share this type of content with researchers in white lab coats. But self-reporting via the apps andwebsites, despite its potential biases, may provide more information on these types of dreams. "This is a wide open area crying for investigation," he says.
K. McNamara is also eager to study individuals' dreams over time to observe differencesand changes in emotional tone, colors, words and other significant patterns andconnect these to events in their lives. That would bring him closer to answeringwhether dreams can, in fact, predict things--it might be possible, for example,that certain kinds of dreams precede getting the flu, or that other dreams are moreassociated with happier events.
L. Such investigations could also reveal more about less welcome dreams, such asnightmares, and potentially lead to ways to control or avoid them. Barrett plans tomine the new database to study how often nightmares occur, and how they relate toan individual's trauma or a family history of anxiety disorder. One of her first projectswill involve the dream data from DreamBoard.com, which has accumulated 165,000dreams over the last two years. Because Drearrd3oard has coded the dreams by thegender, colors, emotions (joy, anxiety, anger) and the number and categories of peoplein a dream, Barrett says she can identify basic patterns.
M. We already know, she says, that women dream equally about men and women whilemen's dreams are two-thirds populated by men. Research so far also shows that men'sdreams may show slightly more anger and physical aggression while women's displaya bit more sadness and verbal hostility. Interpreting what these differences mean,however, will require deeper studies.
N. What's been discovered so far, however, suggests that such studies could reveal anenormous amount about what role dreams play in our lives, and how important theyare for biological, psychological or social reasons. With this research, McNamarabelieves, scientists can find out if what shrinks (精神病學家) have been sayingfor years is true--that reflecting on our dreams is useful and can give us insight intoourselves. Psychologists say so, and many people think so. But this research, he says,gives us the potential to know.

1.[選詞填空]Dreaming mainly occurs when people sleep with rapid eye movement.
    • 解題思路:題干意為,做夢通常發生在人們睡眠時的快速眼動階段。根據題干中的關鍵詞rapideye movement可定位到C段。該段首句提到,做夢主要發生在REM階段,即快速眼動睡眠階段。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選C
    2.[選詞填空]People began to be very curious about dreams after Sigmund Freud published histheories about the meaning of dreams in 1900.
      • 解題思路:題干意為,自西格蒙德·弗洛伊德在1900年發表其關于夢境含義的理論之后,人們便開始對夢境充滿好奇。根據題干中的關鍵詞Sigmund Freud和in 1900可定位到A段。該段首句提到,自從西格蒙德·弗洛伊德于1900年發表了飽受爭議的有關夢境含義的理論以來,我們便對睡眠時的經歷充滿了好奇。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選A。
      3.[選詞填空]Brain imaging and big data may help uncover the mystery of dreams and reveal theirmeaning.
        • 解題思路:題干意為,大腦成像技術和大數據或許有助于破解夢境的神秘和揭示夢境的意義。根據題干中的關鍵詞brain imaging and big data和mystery ofdreams可定位到B段。該段末句提到,更多詳細和及時的大腦運作照片以及研究人員在睡眠實驗室搜集到的有關夢境的信息在慢慢地脫去夢境的神秘外衣,揭示它們的含義。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選B。
        4.[選詞填空]Deirdre Barrett thinks people are thinking in a different biological state while they aredreaming.
          • 解題思路:題干意為,迪爾德麗·巴瑞特認為做夢是人在另外一種生理狀態下進行思考。根據題干中的關鍵詞Deirdre Barrett和different biological state可定位到D段。該段末句直接引用了她的原話:“我認為夢境是在一種不同的生物化學狀態下的思維方式。”由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選D。
          5.[選詞填空]Investigations about dreams may find out ways to control or avoid those less welcomedreams.
            • 解題思路:題干意為,關于夢境的研究或許能夠找到控制或者避免做不好的夢的方法。根據題干中的關鍵詞to control Or avoid those less welcome dreams可定位到L段。該段首句中提到,這類研究也能更多地揭示那些不那么好的夢境,比如噩夢,還有可能會找到控制或避免做噩夢的方法。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選L。
            6.[選詞填空]Traumatic events are related to higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol whichcauses nightmares.
              • 解題思路:題干意為,創傷性事件使壓力荷爾蒙皮質醇水平升高,導致人做噩夢。根據題干中的關鍵詞traumatic events和nightmares可定位到E段。該段第三句提到,創傷性事件會使壓力荷爾蒙皮質醇水平升高,導致人做噩夢。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選E。
              7.[選詞填空]McNamara believes that scientists can figure out if reflecting on our dreams is helpfuland can make us know ourselves better.
                • 解題思路:題干意為,麥克納馬拉相信,科學家能夠弄清楚思考夢境是否有幫助的以及它是否可以使我們更了解自己。根據題干中的關鍵詞McNamara和reflecting on our dreams可定位到N段。該段第二句提到,根據這項研究,麥克納馬拉相信,科學家可以確認精神病學家多年來所說的是否正確——思考夢境不無裨益,能幫助我們更加了解自己。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選N。
                8.[選詞填空]Freud believed that dreams can show some unsatisfied desires or wishes.
                  • 解題思路:題干意為,弗洛伊德相信夢境可以表現出一些沒有被滿足的欲望或希望。根據題干中的關鍵詞Freud和desires可定位到A段。該段第二句提到,弗洛伊德堅信,夢境代表著一些未實現的欲望和向往。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選A。
                  9.[選詞填空]Many scientists believe that people can emotionally, cognitively and physiologicallyget more prepared for challenges or threats through dreaming.
                    • 解題思路:題干意為,很多科學家相信人們可以通過做夢從情感上、認知上和生理上為挑戰或威脅做更好的準備。根據題干中的關鍵詞emotionally,cognitively and physiologically可定位到F段。該段首句中提到,許多科學家相信,夢境能夠幫助我們從情感上、認知上,甚至是生理上預演我們預料中的挑戰和威脅。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選F。
                    10.[選詞填空]There are more sadness and verbal hostility in women's dreams than in men's.
                      • 解題思路:題干意為,在女性的夢境中,感傷和言辭上的敵意要比在男性的夢境中多。根據題干中的關鍵詞sadness and verbal hostility和women’s dreams可定位到M段。該段第二句提到,迄今為止的研究也顯示,男性的夢境可能會傾向于表現出更多的憤怒和身體攻擊,而女性的夢境卻表現出更多的傷感和言辭上的敵意。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選M。
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                      • 參考答案:C,A,B,D,L,E,N,A,F,M
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